80 column punch cards were used to store programs back in the days before 1TB HDDs were common, and that is exactly what took Apollo 11 to the Moon.  The majority of the ground based programming done previous to launch was in Fortran and compiled on an IBM 360 with an huge 1MB of memory, up from the 64K IBM7904 used in Apollo 1.  Once in the air and sporting what is essentially hard coded software, there was no way to change the programs; the only control the ground had was to change the order in which they ran, allowing for adjustments in the flight path.  You can check out the story at Linux.com.

You can also grab the source code, in digital form, from MAKE:Blog and see the nouns and verbs they had to deal with yourself.
“When Apollo 11’s Lunar Module landed on the Moon 40 years ago today, the software that helped take humans to another celestial body was essentially built using paper-tape rolls and thick cardstock that was punched with special holes.

It wasn’t open source in the sense we know today, but it was built for NASA under contract, then was tested, modified and fine-tuned by NASA engineers in ways that are similar to open source projects nowadays.

“Well, in today’s definition it was open source–the source code was publicly available” to mission engineers, said John ‘Jack’ Garman, who was a 24-year-old NASA computer engineer when Apollo 11 lifted off July 16, 1969, on its way to the Moon. “But ‘open source’ in the Linux sense generally means that anyone can contribute additions and improvements, and of course that wasn’t the case for the Apollo software.”

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